Jumat, 04 Mei 2012

Contoh Handout


Mata kuliah : Bahasa Inggris
Program/Semester : Non Reguler/II
Dosen: Arif Fahrudin, S.Pd.I


  • Greeting, Introduction, and Lave Taking
Greeting (Ungkapan Salam)
Biasanya setelah mengucapkan salam, kita mengiringi dengan bertanya tentang kabar orang yang disapa. Di bawah ini beberapa ungkapan salam yang digunakan dan ungkapan untuk menanyakan / menjawab kondisi seseorang.
  • Hello my friend, how are you?
  • Hi, everybody!
  • Hi guys, are you oke?
  • Good morning sir, How are you to day?
  • Good afternoon, nice to see you.
  • How do you do?
  • Good afternoon, Sir?

  • Introducing(Perkenalan).
Di bawah ini adalah beberapa ungkapan – ungkapan untuk memperkenalkan diri.
  • Hello, I am Ryan
I am Fachi, how do you do Ryan?
  • Excuse me, I am Vito.
I am Rika, How do you do Vito?
  • May introduce myself, I am Rangga, Sales Mananger Handicraft Company.
  • My name is Lusi. I am delighted to meet you mr. Iwan.

  • Leave taking
Biasanya untuk menutup percakapan kita menggunakan ungkapan – ungkapan sebagai berikut:
  • Bye… bye…
  • Cherio
  • See you
- See you tomorrow
- See you later
- See you soon
- Nice to meet you
- See you later
- How do you do

Perhatikan contoh dan pembahasan berikut!
Indah : “Hello, Hes. How are you?”
Hesti : “Hi, I am fine. How about you?”
Indah : “ I am very well, thanks. I have something to tell you.”
Hesty : “What is it?”
Indah : “I plan to have small party next weekend. Would you like to join us?”
Hesty : “Sure, I will be there.”
Indah : O.K,see you next weekend.”
Hesty :”See you”
Kalimat – kalimat yang dicetak tebal pada contoh di atas adalah contoh ungkapan greeting dan parting.
Kalimat geeeting digunakan pada saat kita bertemu dengan seseorang dan ungkapan parting digunakan pada saat berpisah dengan seseorang.

  • Command (Perintah)

Mr.Nana : “Good orning, Students!”
Students : “Good morning, Sir.”
Mr.Nana : “O.K. today, we will discuss about industry. Open your book on page 32!”
Students : “Yes, Sir.”
Mr.Nana : “Bondan, read the reading passage, please!”
Bondan : “All right, Sir.”
Kalimat yang bercetak tebal adalah contoh kalimat yang mengungkapan suatu perintah (expressing command). Command adalah suatu ungkpan yang digunalan untuk meminta oang lain melakukan suatu pekerjaan (aktivitas). Command atau kalimat perintah selalu di awali dengan kata kerja bentuk pertama atau Be, jika diikuti oleh kata sifat (adjective).
V1 + O/Ket + !
  1. Clean the blackboard!
  2. Sweep the classroom!
  3. Come here, please!
  4. Do it by yourself!
Be + adj +!
  1. Be quiet, please!
  2. Be honest!
  3. Be careful!
  4. Be calm!
  • Clean the blackboard please!
  • Sit down, please!
  • Stand up, please!
  • Oke, no problem
  • I do it
  • Yes sir!

  • Forbiding (Larangan)
  • Don’t speak loudly, please!
  • Don’t make a noise, please!
  • Don’t go away, please!
  • Don’t cry, please!
  • Of course
  • Sure
  • Ok

  • Asking and Giving Information.
Ungkapan – ungkapan yang sering digunakan adalah:
  1. What (asking about things)
  2. Where (asking about places)
  3. When (asking about time)
  4. Who (asking about persons, usually as subject)
  5. Whose (asking about possesion)
  6. Why (asking about reason)
  7. How (asking about the manner)
Untuk menanyakan dan memberikan informasi kita dapat menggunakan:
  1. Yes / No questions
Yaitu pertanyaan - pertanyaan yang membutuhkan jawaban Yes atau No.
Untuk membuat Yes – no menggunakan:
  • To be (is, are, am, was, were)
Example: A: “Is he a librarian?”
B: “ Yes, he is.”
  • Kata kerja waktu ( do, does, did)
Example : A: “does he work in library?”
B: “ no, he doesn’t”
  • Modal (can, may, have, and so on)
Example: A: “ Can I borrow the book?”
B: “Yes, you can.”
  1. Wh-questions
Yaitu pertanyaan yang membutuhkan jawaban yang detail.
Example :
  • A: “What is your name?”
B: “My name is Andre.”
  • A: “ Where do you live?”
B: “ I live in Jakarta.”
  • A: “When will you return the book?”
B: “I’ll return the book tomorrow.”
  • A: “ Who helps you to find the book.”
B: “A librarian helps me to find the book.”
  • A: “ Why do you get a fine?”
B: “ Because I retrun the book late.”
  • A: “ How do you know that?”
B: “ Someone informs me about it.”

  • Thanking
More formal
  • Thanks a million.
  • Thank you
  • Thank a lot for…
  • I’m very grateful for…
  • Don’t worry about it!
  • That’s okay.
  • You are welcome.
  • Don’t mention it.

Less formal
  • Thanks
  • Forget it!

  • Apologizing (Ungkapan permintaan maaf)
o    I beg your pardon.
o    I would like to apologize for…
o    Please forgive me for…
o    I’m awfully sorry..
o    I really must apologize for…
o    There is nothing to apologize.
o    That’s all right.
o    It’s quite all right.
o    No need to worry.
o    Don’t worry, its OK!
  • Politeness (Ungkapan permintaan)
  • Could you show me your picture, please?
  • Could you tell me the matter, please?
  • Would you like to go with me, please?
  • Yes, I could.
  • Why not?
  • Sure
  • Of course

  • Asking and giving opinion
Yaitu ungkapan untuk menanyakan dan memberikan pendapat.
Asking for Opinion
Giving Opinion
  • Do you think that..?
  • What do you think of/about..?
  • What is your opinion about..?
  • How do you think of..?
  • Yes, I think so / I don’t think so
  • I think..
  • In my opinion…
  • As I see it,…

  • Offering Something
Yaitu ungkapan untuk menawarkan bantuan dan cara meresponnya.
How to offer help
How to accept an offer
  • Shall I do it for you?
  • What can I do for you?
  • Would you like me to help you?
  • Thank you very much
  • Oh, yes please
  • If you’re sure. It’s no problem

How to refuse the offer
  • Please, don’t trouble yourself with this.
  • Thank you for the offer, but I can do it myself.
  • That’s a good idea, but thanks.

  • Interrupting and asking Permission.
Yaitu hal yang dapat dilakukan tanpa menjadi suatu keharusan ( digunakan sebagai permohonan izin)
  • I’m sorry for disturbing you…
  • May I take…
  • Yes, please… here you are
  • Yes, of course.

  • Certainly and Uncertainly
Yaitu ungkapan untuk menyatakan kepastiaan dan ketidakpastian.
Menanyakan kepastian
Menyatakan kepastian
Menyatakan ketidakpastian
  • Are you sure?
  • Are you certain?
  • Are you positive about it?
  • I am absolutely sure
  • I am certain about it
  • I am positive about that
  • I am not sure
  • I am not absolutely sure about it
  • I am not certain

  • Sympathy
Yaitu ungkapan simpati yang digunakan untuk mengungkapkan perasaan iba dan turut prihatin atas hal – hal yang tidak menyenangkan yang terjadi pada orang lain.
  1. That’s awful!
  2. That’s a pity!
  3. That’s a terrible!
  4. I am sorry to hear that!
  5. Please accept my condolence.

  • Mustaha, bachrudin. STEPS TO GLOBAL WORD : A Breakthrough in Learning English for SMU.Jakarta: Grafindo.2004.
  • Aryani, rima. Kupas Tuntas Bahasa Inggris. Solo : Sundana. 2010.


Mata kuliah : Bahasa Inggris
Program/Semester : Non Reguler/II
Dosen: Arif Fahrudin, S.Pd.I

Active and Passive Voice

Active sentence (active voice) is a sentence where the subject was doing the work, by contrast, the passive voice (passive voice) is a sentence where the subject was subjected to the work by the object of the sentence.. Active voice is more often used in everyday life compared with the passive voice. However, often we find the passive voice in the newspapers, articles in magazines and scholarly writings. Passive voice is used because the object of the active voice is the information more important than his subject.
Contoh : Example:
  • Active : We fertilize the soil every 6 months
  • Passive: The soil is fertilized by us every 6 months
From this example we can see that:
  1. Object of the active voice (the soil) becomes the subject of the passive voice
  2. Subject of the active voice (we) became the object of the passive voice.Note also that there is a change of subject pronouns 'we' becomes the object pronoun 'us'.
  3. Verb1 (Fertilize) the active voice becomes verb3 (fertilized) on the passive voice.
  4. He added that be 'is' in front verb3. Be used is dependent on the subject of passive voice and tenses used. (Note the passive voice patterns below).
  5. He added the word 'by' behind verb3. However, if the object of the passive voice is considered unimportant or unknown, then the object is usually not mentioned and so does the word 'by'.
  6. Especially for progressive sentences (present, past, past perfect, future, past future, and past perfect continuous future, need to add the 'being' in front verb3). If not added "being", tensisnya will change, not a progressive / continuous again. Consider the examples in point h - o below.
Based on the six points above the passive voice followed the pattern as follows:
Subject + be + Verb 3 + Object + by + modifier
The pattern of active and passive voice in each tense
a. If the active voice in simple present tense, then 'be' passive voice it is is, am or acres.
  • Active : He meets them everyday.
  • Passive : They are met by him everyday.
  • Active : She waters this plant every two days.
  • Passive : This plant is watered by her every two days.
b. If the active voice in the simple past tense, then 'be' passive voice it is was or were the resource persons
  • Active : He met them yesterday
  • Passive : They were met by him yesterday
  • Active : She watered this plant this morning
  • Passive: This plant was watered by her this morning
c. If the active voice in present perfect tense, then 'be' passive voice it is been placed after the auxiliary has or have, so it becomes 'has been' or 'have been'
  • Active: He has met Them
  • Passive: They have been met by him
  • Active: She has watered this plant for 5 minutes.
  • Passive: This plant has been watered by her for 5 minutes.
d. If the active voice in the past perfect tense, then 'be' passive voice it is been placed after the auxiliary had, so be Had been
  • Active: He Had Met Them before I CAME.
  • Passive: They Had been met by him before I CAME.
  • Active: She Had watered this plant for 5 minutes Pls I got here
  • Passive: This plant Had been watered by her for 5 minutes Pls I got here
e. If the active voice in the simple future tense, then 'be' passive voice is to be his
  • Active: He Will meet tomorrow Them.
  • Passive: They Will be met by him tomorrow.
  • Active: She Will this water plant this afternoon.
  • Passive: This Will plant be watered by her this afternoon.
  • Active: The Farmers are going to harvest the crops next week
  • Passive: The crops are going to be harvested by the Farmers next week.
f. If the active voice in the future perfect tense, then 'be' passive voice it is been placed after the auxiliary Will have, so it becomes 'Will have been'
  • Active: He Will have Met Them before I get there tomorrow.
  • Passive: They Will have been met by him before I get there tomorrow.
  • Active: She Will have watered this plant before I get here this afternoon.
  • Passive: This Will plants have been watered by her before I get here this afternoon.
g. If the active voice in the past future perfect tense, then 'be' passive voice it is been placed after the auxiliary would have, so it becomes 'would have been'.
  • Active: He would have met Them.
  • Passive: They would have been met by him.
  • Active: She would have watered this plant.
  • Passive: This plant would have been watered by her.
h. . If the active voice in the present continuous tense, then 'be' passive voice is (is, am or acre) + being.
  • Active: He is meeting Them now.
  • Passive: They are being met by him now.
  • Active: She is watering this plant now.
  • Passive: This plant is being watered by her now.
i. If the active voice in the past continuous tense, then 'be' passive voice is (was or were the resource persons) + being.
  • Active: He was meeting Them.
  • Passive: They were the resource persons being met by him.
  • Active: She was watering this plant.
  • Passive: This plant was being watered by her.
j. If the active voice in perfect continuous tense, then 'be' passive voice is (has / have) been + being.
  • Active: He has been meeting Them.
  • Passive: They have been being met by him.
  • Active: She has been watering this plant.
  • Passive: This plant has been being watered by her.
k. If the active voice in the past perfect continuous tense, then 'be' passive voice-it was Had been + being.
  • Active: He Had been meeting Them.
  • Passive: They Had been being met by him.
  • Active: She Had been watering this plant.
  • Passive: This plant being watered by Had been her.
l. If the active voice in the future continuous tense, then 'be' passive voice-it is the will of be + being. Example:
  • Active: He Will be meeting Them.
  • Passive: They Will be being met by him.
  • Active: She Will be watering this plant.
  • Passive: Will be This plant being watered by her.
m. If the active voice in the past future continuous tense, then 'be' passive voice it is would be + being.
  • Active: He would be meeting Them.
  • Passive: They would be being met by him.
  • Active: She would be watering this plant.
  • Passive: This plant would be being watered by her.
n. If the active voice in the future perfect continuous tense, then 'be' passive voice-it is the Will have been + being.
  • Active: He Will have been meeting Them.
  • Passive: Will They have been being met by him.
  • Active: She Will have been watering this plant.
  • Passive: This plant will from have been being watered by her.
o. If the active voice in the past future perfect continuous tense, then 'be' passive voice it is would have been + being.
  • Active: He would be meeting Them.
  • Passive: They would be being met by him.
  • Active: She would be watering this plant.
  • Passive: This plant would be being watered by her.
Other examples:
  1. Koko's nose is bleeding . Koko's nose is bleeding. He was punched by his friend right on his nose. He was punched by his friend right on his nose.
  2. The Indonesian football team was beaten by the Saudi Arabian team. The Indonesian football team was beaten by the Saudi Arabian team.
  3. These plants were watered by my sister a few minutes ago. These plants were the resource persons watered by my sister A Few minutes ago.
  4. There is no meal left. There is no meal left. All has been devoured by Yeyes. All has been devoured by Yeyes.
  5. English is studied by all high school students. Home is studied by all high school students.
Use of Passive
Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, however, who or what is performing the action.
Example: My bike was stolen.
In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know, however, who did it.
Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example shows:
Example: A mistake was made.
In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone (e.g. You have made a mistake.).
Form of Passive
Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs)
Example: A letter was written.
When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:
  • the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
  • the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
  • the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)
Examples of Passive
Simple Present
a letter.
A letter
is written
by Rita.
Simple Past
a letter.
A letter
was written
by Rita.
Present Perfect
has written
a letter.
A letter
has been written
by Rita.
Future I
will write
a letter.
A letter
will be written
by Rita.
can write
a letter.
A letter
can be written
by Rita.
Examples of Passive
Present Progressive
is writing
a letter.
A letter
is being written
by Rita.
Past Progressive
was writing
a letter.
A letter
was being written
by Rita.
Past Perfect
had written
a letter.
A letter
had been written
by Rita.
Future II
will have written
a letter.
A letter
will have been written
by Rita.
Conditional I
would write
a letter.
A letter
would be written
by Rita.
Conditional II
would have written
a letter.
A letter
would have been written
by Rita.
Passive Sentences with Two Objects
Rewriting an active sentence with two objects in passive voice means that one of the two objects becomes the subject, the other one remains an object. Which object to transform into a subject depends on what you want to put the focus on.

Object 1
Object 2
a letter
to me.
A letter
was written
to me
by Rita.
was written
a letter
by Rita.
As you can see in the examples, adding by Rita does not sound very elegant. That’s why it is usually dropped.
Personal and Impersonal Passive
Personal Passive simply means that the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. So every verb that needs an object (transitive verb) can form a personal passive.
Example: They build houses. – Houses are built.
Verbs without an object (intransitive verb) normally cannot form a personal passive sentence (as there is no object that can become the subject of the passive sentence). If you want to use an intransitive verb in passive voice, you need an impersonal construction – therefore this passive is called Impersonal Passive.
Example: he says – it is said
Impersonal Passive is not as common in English as in some other languages (e.g. German, Latin). In English, Impersonal Passive is only possible with verbs of perception (e. g. say, think, know).
Example: They say that women live longer than men. – It is said that women live longer than men.
Although Impersonal Passive is possible here, Personal Passive is more common.
Example: They say that women live longer than men. – Women are said to live longer than men.
The subject of the subordinate clause (women) goes to the beginning of the sentence; the verb of perception is put into passive voice. The rest of the sentence is added using an infinitive construction with 'to' (certain auxiliary verbs and that are dropped).
Sometimes the term Personal Passive is used in English lessons if the indirect object of an active sentence is to become the subject of the passive sentence.

  • Mustaha, bachrudin. STEPS TO GLOBAL WORD : A Breakthrough in Learning English for SMU.Jakarta: Grafindo.2004.
  • Aryani, rima. Kupas Tuntas Bahasa Inggris. Solo : Sundana. 2010.
- http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/passive, di unduh 20 juni jam 20:00 Wib

Mata kuliah : Bahasa Inggris
Program/Semester : Non Reguler/II
Dosen: Arif Fahrudin, S.Pd.I


Conjunction or conjunctions are words that are used to connect / merge with another word, phrase with another phrase, or clause with another clause. There are three types of conjunctions: coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions, and subordinating conjunctions.

  1. Coordinating conjunctions

    Conjuctions is used to combine words with other words, combine phrases with other phrases, or sentences with other sentences. Linked by a conjunction of this type must be an element the same sentence, eg subject + subject, verb phrase + verb phrase, sentence + sentence.

    There are seven coordinating conjunctions are: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. To make it easier to remember try using this acronym: fanboys; F for A's and, N for normal, and so on.

    - The boy keeps the lights on, for he is afraid of sleeping in the dark.
(Anak itu membiarkan lampunya menyala karena dia takut tidur dalam keadaan gelap)
- He has one good dictionary and at least 3 good English books.
(Dia punya 1 kamus bagus dan paling tidak 3 buku bahasa Inggris bagus).

- She is a vegetarian. She will not eat beef, nor will she eat chicken.
(Dia seorang vegetarian. Dia tidak akan makan daging sapi, dia juga tidak akan makan daging ayam).

- She is cute but evil.
(Dia cantik tapi jahat).

- Do you want to go with me or to stay home?
(Apakah kamu mau ikut saya atau tinggal di rumah?).


Use a comma before the conjunction if the conjunction combines two sentences. Commas are also used if the conjunctions combine more than two words or a phrase. Example: We studied math, physics, and chemistry last semester.
For also functions as a preposition. As preposisiton, for followed by a noun. Example: I am waiting for a cab.
Yet also serves as an adverb. Example: I have not finished reading this article yet. See the use of the adverb yet the discussion about the present perfect tense.
So = as if followed by the adjective / adverb.
See the discussion of its use in comparisons.

2). Paired conjunctions / Correlative conjunctions

Conjunctions also incorporates the element-element sentence as above. The difference is always used in pairs.
Both ... and

either ... or
not only ... but also

Neither ... nor


Both my sister and my brother can play the guitar. My sister dan my brother dua-duanya bisa main gitar).
He is not only handsome but also smart. (Dia bukan saja tampan tapi juga pintar). ( jika not only diletakkan di awal kalimat, lakukan inversi terhadap auxiliary/be/do,does,did ke depan subject kalimat). Jadi kalimat ini juga dapat ditulis: Not only is he handsome but also smart.
Either the students or the teacher is going to go to the museum tomorrow. (Baik murid-murid maupun guru akan pergi ke museum besok).
Neither John, Sussie nor I have a good studying habit. (Baik John, Sussie maupun saya tidak punya kebiasaan belajar yang baik). Mungkin, belajarnya hanya jika ada ujian.

With the exception of Both ... and, if corrective conjunctions combine singular and plural subjects, forms of verbs (whether singular or plural) is determined by the subject closest to (which is immediately followed by) the verb is.

in Example 3 is used is going to (not are going to) because it immediately follows the teacher (singular subject). In Example 4 is used have (not has) because it directly follows I. Now let us consider the writing, when the position rotated subjectnya:

Either the teacher or the students are going to go to the museum tomorrow. (Neither the teacher nor the students will go to the museum tomorrow).
Neither John nor I Sussie has a good studying habits. (Well John, I and Sussie not have good study habits).

  1. Subordinating conjunctions

    Subordinating conjuctions are words that can be used to form adverbial clause (which is generally a clause / subordinate clause) of the main sentence (main clause).
    The number of conjunctions of this type are very numerous and in general are adverbs. Conjunction of this type can be grouped into 5, the conjunction of states of time (time), causal (cause and effect), meaning the opposite (Opposition), goals (purpose), and conditional (conditional).

    a. Used to denote time (time).
    - after (setelah)
- till (hingga/sampai)
- the first time (pertama kali)
- before (sebelum)
` - as soon as (segera setelah)
- the second time (kedua kali)
- when (ketika)
- once (segera setelah)
- the last time (terakhir kali)
- while (sementara)
- as long as (sepanjang)
- the next time (kali berikut)
- as (sementara)
- so long as (sepanjang)
- by the time
- since (sejak)
- whenever (setiap kali)
- until (hingga/sampai)
- every time (setiap kali)

    • We will play football after we finish doing the homework.
- Before they got married last month, they had been seeing each other for almost ten years.
- When I got home last night, someone was trying to break into my house.
- A friend of mine felt asleep on his desk while the teacher was teaching.
- She has turned into a different person since she became a famous artist.
- I will keep studying hard until the final exam is over next week.
- We will leave as soon as the rain stops.
- As long as I live, I will never see your fucking ugly face again.
- Whenever I look at her picture, my heart beats fast.
- The first time we went to Bali, we went to Tanah Lot.
- The next time I play you, I will kick your ass.

Note: kick your ass = kick your butt = defeat. Very informal.

b. Used to indicate causality (cause-effect).
Sebab akibat
because (karena)
inasmuch as (karena)
so…that (sehingga)
since (karena)
now that (karena sekarang)
such …that (sehingga)
as (karena)


  • That I passed the course easily since the questions were the resource persons very easy.
  • He got an accident Because he drove while he was drunk.
  • Now that the semester is finished, I am going to rest for a Few days and then take a trip to Bali.
  •  As She Had nothing to do, She asked me to come over to her house.
Inasmuch as the two countries' leaders did not reach an agreement, the possibility of war the between the two countries Remains open.
The coffee is so hot that i can not drink it. (The coffee was so hot, therefore, I can not drink it).
c. To express the opposite meaning (Opposition).
Contrary meanings
Makna yang Berlawanan
although (walaupun
even though (walaupun)
while (sedangkan)
though (walaupun)
whereas (sedangkan)
no matter (tidak memandang)


Although he is not tall, he is a very good volleyball player.

    Jenny is rich, whereas Joni is poor.

    No matter how hard I tried, the math problems could not be solved.

d. To state the purpose (purpose).
in order to (agar)
in order (that) (agar)
so that (agar)


During the class, We need to be quiet in order to be Able to listen to what the teacher says.

I turned off the TV so my roommate That Could study well.

I turned off the TV in order (that) my roommate Could study well.

They keep practicing Their Home in order (that) Their Classic improves steadily. (They continue to practice English so that English continues to increase).

Note: a) in order to be followed by verbs, whereas in order (that) and so That was followed by a clause (ie S + V). b). That so the meaning here is different so That to declare the cause and effect. Note also the difference in the pattern.

e. To state the assumption (conditional).
if (jika)
whether or not
in case (that) (jika)
unless (jika tidak)
even if (walaupun jika)
providing (that) = if or only if
only if (hanya jika)
in the event (that)
provided (that) = if or only if


     If my parents were not home, I would invite my friends to come over. (jika orangtua saya tidak di rumah, saya akan undang teman-teman saya datang ke rumah).
I will go unless it rains. (Saya akan pergi jika tidak hujan). Note: unless = if…not. Jadi, kalimataya dapat ditulis menjadi: I will go if it doesn’t rain.
I don’t care no more whether or not you want to study = I don’t care no more whether you want to study or not. (Saya tidak peduli lagi apakah kamu mau belajar atau tidak).
I have decided to marry her. Even if my parents disagree, I am going to marry her. (Saya telah memutuskan untuk mengawininya. Walaupun jika orang tua saya tidak setuju, saya akan (tetap) mengawininya).
I’ll be in the library in case you want to find me. Note: in case = if
The general election will go to the second round only if no candidate gets 50% + 1 votes during the first round. (Pemilu akan masuk ke putaran kedua hanya jika tidak ada kandidat yang memiliki perolehan suara 50% + 1 waktu putaran pertama. Note: Jika only if diletakkan di awal kalimat, maka dilakukan inversi auxiliary/be/do,does,did) ke depan subject main clause. Kalimat ini dapat ditulis menjadi: Only if no candidate gets 50% + 1 votes will the general election go to the second round.

  • Mustaha, bachrudin. STEPS TO GLOBAL WORD : A Breakthrough in Learning English for SMU.Jakarta: Grafindo.2004.
  • Aryani, rima. Kupas Tuntas Bahasa Inggris. Solo : Sundana. 2010.
  • http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/conjunctions.htm di unduh Rabu, 21 juni jam 20.00 Wib.
  • http://swarabhaskara.com/parts-of-speech/conjunctions/


Mata kuliah : Bahasa Inggris
Program/Semester : Non Reguler/II
Dosen ; Arif Fahrudin, S.Pd.I

Ada lima jenis teks yaitu descriptive, procedure, recount, narrative, dan report. Setiap teks memiliki fungsi social (tujuan), generic structure, dan lexical grammar yang berbeda – beda.
  • Descriptions Text
Ciri umum:
  1. Tujuan
Mendeskripsikan ciri –ciri seseorang, benda, atau tempat.
  1. Stuktur Teks
  1. Indentification
Pengenalan benda, orang, tau sesuatu yang akan dideskripsikan.
  1. Deskription
Menggambarkan ciri – ciri benda tersebut misalnya berasal dari warna, ukuran kesukaannya. Deskripsi ini hanya memberikan informasi mengenai benda atau orang tertentu yang sedang di bahas saja, misalnya deskripsi tentang “My Dog” ciri – ciri anjing saya berbeda dengan anjing yang lain.
  1. Ciri Kebahasaan.
  • Nouns tertentu misalnya teacher, house, my cat.
  • Simple present tense.
  • Detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, misalnya it was a large open rowboat, a sweet young lady.
  • Berbagai macam adjective yang bersifat describing, numbering, classifying, misalnya two strong legs, sharp white fangs.
  • Relating verb dan feeling verb untuk mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penlis tentang subject misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. I thingk it is a clever animal.
  • Action verb, misalnya Our new puppy bites our shoes.
  • Adverbials untuk memberikan informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut, misalnya Fast, at the tree house.
  • Bahasa figurative, seperti smile, metaphor, misalnya John is white as chalk, sat tight.
My Pet
I have a pet. It is a dog and I call it Brownie. Brownie is achinese breed. It is small, fluffy, and cute. It has got thick brown fur. When I cuddle it, the fur feels soft. Brownie does not like bones. Everyday it eats soft food like steamed rice, fish, and bread. Every morning I give her milk and bread. When I am at school, Brownie plays with my cat. They get a long well, and never fight maybe because Brownie does not bark a lot. It treats the other animals in our house gently, and never eats shoes. Brownie is really a sweet and friendly animal.

  • Procedure Text
Ciri umum:
  1. Tujuan
Menberikan petunjuk cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah.
  1. Struktur Teks
  • Tujuan kegiatan (Goal)
  • Bahan – bahan (materials)
  • Langkah – langkah (Steps)
  1. Ciri Kebahasaan.
  • Pola kalimat imperative, misalnya, cut, don’t mix.
  • Action verb, misalnya trun, put.
  • Connectives, untuk mengurutkan kegiatan, misalnya then, while.
  • Adverbials untuk menyatakan waktu, tempat, cara yang akurat,misalnya for five minutes, 2 cm from the top.
  1. Contoh
How to make a Cheese Omelet
1 egg, 50 g cheese, I cup milk, 3 tablespoons oil, a pinch of salt and pepper.
Frying pan, fork, spatula, vheese grater, bowl, and plate.
  • Rack the egg into bowl
  • Whisk the egg with a fork until it’s smooth
  • Add milk and whisk well
  • Grate the cheese into the bowl ang stir
  • Heat the oil in frying pan
  • Turn the omeler with spatula and cook both sides
  • Place on plate, season with salt and pepper

  • Recount text
Ciri umum:
  • Tujuan
Melaporkan peristiwa, kejadian, atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau mrnghibur.
  • Stuktue Teks
  1. Orientation (pendahuluan)
Yaitu memberikan informasi tentang apa, siapa, dimana, dan kapan.
  1. Events (laporan)
Yaitu rentetan peristiwa/kegiatan yang terjadi, biasanya disampaikan secara berurutan.

  1. Re-orientation (penutup)
Yang merangkumkan rentetan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan.
  • Ciri Kebahasaan .
  • Nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang , hewan, atau benda yang terlibat, misalnya David, the monkey.
  • Actions verb atau kata kerja tindakan , misalnya go, sleep, run.
  • Past tense, misalnya We went to the zoo, she was happy.

  • Report text
Ciri Umum:
  • Tujuan
Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu, apa adanya sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis yang diekspresikan dapat meliputi gejala alam, lingkunagn, benda buatan manusia, atau gejala – gejala social. Deskripsi sebuah teks report denagn berupa simpulan umum.
  • Stuktur Teks
  1. Classification / Definiton
Pernyataan umumyang menerangkan subyek laporan , keterangan, dan klasifikasi.
  1. Description : deskripsi.
  • Ciri Kebahasaan
  • General nouns, seperti “Reptiles in Comodo Island”
  • Relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri misalnya replite are scali animals (ciri ini berlaku semua reptile)
  • Actions verb dalam menjelaskan perilaku, misalnya lizards cannot fly.
  • Present tense untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang umum. Misalnya komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg.
  • Istilah teknis, misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen.
  • Paragraph dengan menggunakan topic sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi.

  • Narative Text
Ciri umum:
  • Tujuan
Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca dengan pengalaman nyata atau khayal. Ciri naratif adalah adanya unsur konflik ( masalah) dan resolusi penyelesaian masalah). Jumlah masalah atau penyelesaian masalah mungkin hanya satu atau lebih.
  • Struktur Teks
  • Orientation
Pengenalan tokoh, waktu dan tempat.
  • Complication/Crisis
Pengembangan konflik
  • Re-orientation
Perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita.
  • Ciri Kebahasaan
  • Nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang , hewan, dan benda tertentu dalam cerita, misalnya stepsisters, housework.
  • Adjective yang berbentuk noun phrase, misalnya long black hair, two red apples.
  • Time conectives dan conjunctions untuk mengurutkan lokasi kejadiaan atau peristiwa misalnya here, in the mountain, ever after.
  • Action verb dalan past tense,misalnya stayed, climbed.
  • Saying verb yang menandai ucapaan seperti said, told, promised.
  • Thiking verb yang menandai pikiran,persepsi, atau perasaan tokoh dalam cerita misalnya, thought, understood, felt.

- Mustaha, bachrudin. STEPS TO GLOBAL WORD : A Breakthrough in Learning English for SMU.Jakarta: Grafindo.2004.
- Aryani, rima. Kupas Tuntas Bahasa Inggris. Solo : Sundana. 2010.Referensi:

Teaching Methods for TEFL
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Here’s all the Skills you missed if you haven’t taken a formal TEFL Training Certificate Course.
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What to do
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When to do it
EFL Teaching Methods
TEFL Methodology:
Methods for Teaching English
in the EFL Classroom
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Basic Concepts:
TEFL Methodology taught in training programs is generally either “PPP” or “ESA”
“PPP” – means Presentation, Practice, and Production
“Presentation” is where the target language (the language to be taught to the students) is “presented” to the students generally through eliciting and cueing of the students (to see if they know it – generally someone knows some or all of it) and then providing the language if no one does.
The target language is usually put on the marker board either in structure (grammar-type) charts or in dialogs.  Presentation features more “teacher talk” than the other stages of the lesson – generally as much as 65-90% of the time.  This portion of the total lesson can take as much as 20-40% of the lesson time.
Next comes “Practice” where the students practice the target language in one to three activities that progress from very structured (students are given activities that provide little possibility for error) to less-structured (as they master the material).
These activities should include as much “student talk” as possible and not focus on written activities – though written activities can provide a structure for the verbal practices. Practice should have the “student talk time” range from 60-80 percent of the time – with teacher talk time being the balance of that time.  This portion of the total lesson can take from 30-50% of the lesson time.
“Production” is the stage of the lesson where the students take the target language and use it in conversations that they structure (ideally) and use it to talk about themselves or their daily lives or situations.  Practice should involve student talk at as much as 90% of the time – and this component of the lesson can/should take as much as 20-30% of the lesson time.
As you can see the general structure of a PPP lesson is flexible – but an important feature is the movement from controlled and structured speech to less-controlled and more freely used and created speech.  Another important feature of PPP (and other methods too) is the rapid reduction of teacher talk time and the increase in student talk time.
One of the most common errors untrained teachers make is that they talk too much.  EFL students get very little chance to actually use the language they learn and the EFL classroom must be structured to create that opportunity.  See the paragraph on Pairwork and Small Groups below.
“ESA” – means Engage, Study, and Activate
Roughly equivalent to PPP, ESA is slightly different in that it is designed to – and allows – movement back and forth between the stages.  However, each stage is similar to the PPP stages in the same order.  Proponents of this method stress its flexibility compared to PPP and the method, as defined by Jeremy Harmer (its major advocate), uses more elicitation and stresses the “Engagement” of students in the early stages of the lesson.
ESA is superior method to PPP when both are looked at from a rigid point of view.  But, EFL is not rigid and you should not adhere to any one viewpoint or method.  PPP is often an easier method for teacher-trainees to get a handle on, but probably more programs teach ESA than PPP these days, especially those that teach only one of the approaches.
Pairwork and Working in Small Groups
Most speaking practice in the classroom should be done in pairs and small groups with students talking to each other.  It is a common mistake of the untrained teacher to think that students must or need to talk to the teacher.
While talking to the teacher is certainly useful, each student in a small class of only 15 will get at most three minutes of talking time in a 45 minute class if conversation is teacher centered.  In pairs those same students could be directly involved in conversation as much as twenty-two minutes.
See the difference?  That is a seven-fold increase in the amount of time a student can practice speaking, listening and interacting in English.  And one of the biggest problems EFL students have is the very limited amount of time they actually get to practice speaking and listening in direct interaction.
The teacher’s role during pairwork and small group time is to rotate around the classroom encouraging students and helping them focus on the target language/concepts of the lesson.   Including pairwork and small-group work in your PPP/ESA lesson is critical to the success and improvement of your students.
The Nature of Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching
Dipublikasi pada Januari 27, 2010 oleh gideon
The Nature of Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching

We saw in the preceding chapter that the changing rationale for foreign language study and classroom techniques and procedures used to teach languages have reflected responses to a variety of historical issues and circumstances. Tradition was for many years the guiding principle. The Grammar Translation Method reflected times, the practical realities of the classroom determined both goals and procedures, as with the determination of reading as the goal in American school and colleges in the late 1920s. At other times, theories derived from linguistics, psychology, or a mixture of both were used to develop a both philosophical and practical basis for language teaching, as with the various reformist proposal of the nineteenth century. As the study of teaching methods and procedures in language teaching assumed a more central role within procedures in language method. In this chapter we will clarify the relationship between approach and method and present a model for the description, analysis, and comparison of methods.

Approach and Method
When linguistics and language specialist sought to improve the quality of language teaching in the late nineteenth century, they often did so by referring to general principles and theories concerning how languages are learned, how knowledge of language is presented and organized in memory, or how language itself is structured. The early applied linguists such as Henry Sweet ( 1845-1912), Otto Jespersen ( 1860-1943), and Harold Palmer ( 1877-1949), elaborated principles and theoretically accountable approaches to the design of language teaching programs, courses, and materials, though many of the selection and sequencing of vocabulary and grammar, though none of these applied linguists saw in any existing method the ideal embodiment of their ideals.
In describing methods, the difference between a philosophy of language teaching at the level of theory and a set of derived procedures for teaching a language is central. In an attempt to clarify this difference, a schedule was proposed by the American applied linguist Eduard Anthony in 1963. He identified three levels of conceptualization and organization, which he termed; Approach, Method, and Technique:

The arrangement is hierarchical. The organizational key is that techniques carry out a method which is consistent with an approach……
…… an approach is a set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature of language teaching and leaning. An approach is axiomatic. It describes the natural of the subject matter to be taught an approach……
…… Method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, no part of which contradicts, and all of which is based upon, the selected approach. An approach is axiomatic, a method is procedural. Within one approach, there can be many methods……
………A technique is implementation – that which actually takes place in a classroom. It is a particular trick, stratagem, or contrivance used to accomplish an immediate objective. Techniques must be consistent with a method, and therefore in harmony with an approach as well (Anthony 1963:63-67).
According to Anthony’s model, approach is the level at which assumptions and beliefs about language and language learning are specified; method is the level at which theory is put into practice and at which choices are made about the particular skill to be taught, the content to be taught, and the order in which the content will be presented; techniques is the level at which classroom procedures are described.
Anthony’s model serves as a useful way of distinguishing between different degrees of abstraction and specificity found in different language teaching proposals. Thus we can see that the proposals of the Reform Movement were at the level of approach and that the Direct Method is one method derived from this approach. The so-called reading Method, which evolved as a result of the Coleman Rapport, should really be described in the plural-reading methods-since a number of different ways of implementing a reading approach have been developed.

A number of another ways of conceptualizing approaches and methods in language teaching have been proposed. Mackey, in his book language Teaching Analysis (1965), elaborated perhaps the most well known model of the 1960s, one that focuses primarily on the levels of method and technique. Mackey’s model of language teaching analysis concentrates on the dimensions of selections, gradation, presentation, and repetition underlying a method. In fact, despite the title of Mackey’s book, his concern is primarily with the analysis of text books and their underlying principles of organization. His model fails to address the level of approach, nor does it deal with the actual classroom behaviors of teachers and learners, except as these are represented in textbooks. Hence it can not really serve as basis for comprehensive analysis of either approaches or methods.
Although Antony’s original proposal has the advantage of simplicity and comprehensiveness and serves as a useful way of distinguishing the relationship between underlying theoretical principles and the practices derived from them, it fails to give sufficient attention to the nature of a method itself. Nothing is said about the role of teachers and learners assumed in a method, for example, nor about the role of instructional materials or the form they are excepted to take. It fails to account for how an approach may be realized in a method, or for how method and techniques are related. In order to provide a more comprehensive model for the discussion and analysis of approaches and methods, we have revised and extended the original Antony model. The primary areas needing further clarification are, using Antony’s term, method and techniques. We see approach and method treated at the level of design, that level in which objectives, syllabus, and content are determined, and in which the role of teachers, learners, and instructional material are specified. The implementation phase (the level of techniques in Antony’s model) we refer to by the slightly more comprehensive more comprehensive term procedure. Thus, a method is theoretically related to an approach, is organizationally determined by a design, and is practiced to an approach, is organizationally determined by a design, and is practically realized in procedure. In the remainder of this chapter, we will elaborate on the relationship between approach, design, and approaches, using this framework to compare particular methods and approaches in language teaching. In the remaining chapter of the book, we will use the model presented here as a basis for describing a number of widely used approaches and methods.

Following Anthony, approach refers to theories about the nature of language and language learning that serve as the source of practices and principles in language teaching. We will examine the linguistics and psycholinguistics aspects of approach in turn.

Theory of language
At least three different theoretical views of language and the nature of language proficiency explicitly or implicitly inform current approaches and methods in language teaching. The first, and the most traditional of the three, is the structural view, the view that language is a system of structurally related elements for the coding of meaning. The target of language learning is seen to be mastery of elements of this system, which are generally defined in terms of phonological units (e.g., phonemes), grammatical units (e.g., clause, phrases, sentences), grammatical operations (e.g., adding, shifting, joining, or transforming elements), and lexical items (e.g., function words and structure words), such as the Audio-lingual Method embodies this particular view of language, as do such method as Total Physical response and the Silent way.
The second view of language is the functional view, the view that language is a vehicle for the expression of functional meaning. The communicative movement in language teaching subscribes to this view of language. This theory emphasizes the semantic and communicative dimension rather than merely the grammatical characteristics of language, and leads to a specification and organization of language teaching content by categories of meaning an function rather than by elements of structure and grammar. Wilkins’s National Syllabuses ( 1976) is an attempt to spell out the implications of this view of language for syllabus design. A national syllabus would include not only elements of grammar and lexis but also specify the topics, notions, and concepts the learner needs to communicate about. The English for Specific Purpose (ESP) movement likewise begins not from a structural theory of language but from a functional account of learner needs (Robinson 1980).
The third view of language can be called the interactional view. It sees language as a vehicle for the realization of interpersonal relations and for the performance of social transaction between individuals. Language is seen as a tool for the creation and maintenance of social relations. Areas of inquiry being drawn on in the development of interactional approaches to language teaching included interaction analysis, conversation analysis, and ethno-methodology. Interactional theories focus on the patterns of moves, acts, negotiation, and interaction found in conversational exchanges. Language teaching content, according to this view, may be specified and organized by patterns of exchange and interaction or may be left unspecified, to be shaped by the inclinations of learners as interactors’.
‘Interaction’ has been central to theories of second language learning and pedagogy since the 1980s. Rivers (1987) defined the interactive perspective in language education: “students achieve facility in using a language when their attention is focused on conveying and receiving authentic messages (that is, message that contain information of interest to both speaker and listener in a situation of information of interest to both speaker and listener in a situation of importance to both). This is interaction”(Rivers 1987:4). The notion of interactivity has also been linked to the teaching of reading and writing as well as listening and speaking skills. Carrell, Devine, and Esky (1988) use the notion of ‘interactivity’ to refer to the simultaneous use by effective readers of both top down and bottom-up processing in reading comprehension. It is also used to refer to the relationship between reader and writer who are viewed as engaged in a text-based conversation (Grabe in Carrell, Devine, and Esky 1988). Task-Based Language teaching ( Chapter 18) also draws on an international view of language, as to some extent do Whole Language ( Chapter 9), Neurolinguistic Programming (Chapter 11), Cooperative Language Learning (Chapter 16), and Content-Based Interaction ( Chapter 17). Despite this enthusiasm for “ interactivity” as a defining notion in language teaching, a model of “Language as interaction” has not been described in the same level of detail as those model that have been developed for structural and functional view of language theory.
Structural, functional, or interactional models of language (or variation on them) provide the axioms and theoretical framework that may motivate a particular teaching method, such as Audiolingualism. But in themselves they are incomplete and need to be complemented by theories of language learning. It is to this dimension that we now turn.

Theory of language learning
Although specific theories of the nature of language may provide the basis for a particular teaching method, other methods derive primarily from a theory of language learning. A learning theory underlying an approach or method responds to two questions:
a.    What are the psycholinguistic and cognitive processes involved in language learning?
b.    And what are the conditions that need to be met in order for these learning processes to be activated?
Learning theories associated with a method at the level of approach may emphasize either one or both of these dimensions. Process-oriented theories build on learning processes, such as habit formation, induction, inferencing, hypothesis testing, and generalization. Condition-oriented theories emphasize the nature of the human and physical context in which language learning takes place.
Stephen D.Krashen’s Monitor Model second language OF development (1981) is an example of a learning theory on which a method (Natural Approach) has been built. Monitor theory addresses both the process and the condition dimensions of learning. Acquisition refers to the natural assimilation of language rules through using language rules and is a conscious process. According to Krashen, however, learning is available only as a “monitor”. The monitor is the repository of conscious grammatical knowledge about a language that is learned thought formal instruction and that is called upon in the editing of utterances produced through the acquired system. Krashen’s theory also addresses the conditions necessary for the process of “acquisition” to take place. Krashen describes these in term of the type of “in put” the learner receives. In put must be comprehensible, slightly above the learner’s present level of competence, interesting or relevant, not grammatically sequenced, in sufficient quantity, and experienced in low-anxiety contexts.
Tracy D. Terrell’s Natural Approach (1977) is an example of a method derived primarily from a learning theory rather than from a particular view of language. Although the Natural Approach is based on a learning theory that specifies both processes and conditions, the learning theory underlying such method as Counseling-Learning and the Silent way addresses primarily the conditions held to be necessary for learning to take place without specifying what the learning processes themselves are presumed to be.
Charles A. Curran in his writings on Counseling-Learning (1972), for example, focuses primarily on the conditions necessary for successful learning. He believes the atmosphere of the classroom is a crucial factor, and his method seeks to ameliorate the feelings of intimidation and insecurity that many learners experience. James Asher’s Total Physical Response ( Asher 1977) is likewise a method that derives primarily from learning theory rather than from a theory of the nature of language. Asher’s learning theory addresses both the process and condition aspects of learning. It is based on the belief that child language learning is based on motor activity, on coordinating language with action, and that this should from the basis of adult foreign language teaching. Orchestrating language production and comprehension with body movement and physical actions is thought to provide the conditions for success in language learning. Caleb Gattegno’s Silent way ( 1972, 1976) is likewise built around a theory of the conditions necessary for successful learning to be realized. Gattegno’s writings address learners’ needs to feel secure about learning and to assume conscious control of learning. Many of the techniques used in the method are designed to train learners to consciously use their intelligence to heighten learning potential.
There often appear to be natural affinities between certain theories of language and theories of language learning; however, one can imagine different pairings of language theory and learning theory that might work as well as those we observe. The linking of structuralism (a linguistics theory) to behaviorism ( a learning theory) produced Audiolingualism. That particular link was not inevitable, however. Cognitive-code proponents, for example, have attempted to link a more sophisticated model of structuralism to a more mentalistic and less behavioristic brand of learning theory.
At the level of approach, we are hence concerned with theoretical principles. With respect to language theory, we are concerned with a model of language competence and an account of the basic feature of linguistics organization and language use. With respect to learning theory, we are concerned with an account of the central process of learning and an account of the conditions believed to promote successful language learning. These principles may or may not to lead “a method”. Teachers may, for example, develop their own teaching procedures, informed by a particular view of language and a particular theory of language. They may constantly revise, vary, and modify teaching/learning procedures on the basis of performance of the learners and their reactions to instructional practice. A group of teachers holding similar beliefs about language and language learning (i.e., sharing a similar approach) may each implement these principles in different ways. Approach does not specify procedure. Theory does not dictate a particular set of teaching techniques and activities. What links theory with practice (or approach with procedure) is what we have called design.

In order for an approach to lead to a method, it is necessary to develop a design for instructional system. Design is the level of method analysis in which we consider; what the objectives of a method are; how language content is selected and organized within the method, that is, the syllabus model the method incorporates; the types of learning tasks and teaching activities the method advocates; the roles of learners; the roles of teacher; and the role of instructional materials.

Different theories of language and language learning influence the focus of a method; that is, they determine what a method sets out to achieve. The specification of particular learning objectives, however, is a product of design, not of approach. Some method focus primarily on oral skills and say that reading and writing skills are secondary and derive from transfer of oral skills. Some methods set out to teach general communication skills and give greater priority to the ability to express oneself meaningfully and to make oneself understood than to grammatical accuracy or perfect pronunciation. Others place a greater emphasis on accurate grammar and pronunciation from beginning. Some methods set out to teach the basic grammar and vocabulary of a language. Others may define their objectives less in linguistic terms of learning behaviors, that is, in terms of the processes or abilities the learner is expected to acquire as a result of instruction. Gattegno writes, for example, “learning is not seen as the means of accumulating knowledge but as the means of becoming a more proficient learner in whatever one is engaged in” ( 1972:89). This process-oriented objective may be offered in contrast to the linguistically oriented or product-oriented objectives of more traditional methods. The degree to which a method has process oriented or product-oriented objectives may be revealed in how much emphasis is placed on vocabulary acquisition and grammatical proficiency and in how grammatical or pronunciation errors are treated in the method. Many methods that claim to be grammatical and lexical attainment and with accurate grammar and pronunciation.

Content choice and organization: The syllabus
All methods of language teaching involve the use of the target language. All methods thus involve overt or convert decisions concerning the selection of language items (words, sentence patterns, tenses, contractions, functions, topics, etc.) that are to be used within a course or method. Decisions about the choice of content relate to both subject matter and linguistic matter. In straightforward terms, one makes decisions about what to talk about (subject matter) and how to talk about it (linguistic matter). ESP course, for example, are necessarily subject matter focused. Structurally based methods, such as Situational Language Teaching and The Audio- lingual method, are necessarily linguistically focused. Methods typically differ in what they see as the relevant language and subject matter around which language teaching should be organized and the principles used in sequencing content within a course. Content issues involve the principles of selection (Mackey 1965) that ultimately shape the syllabus adopted in courses matters of sequencing and graduation the method adopts. In grammar-based courses matters of sequencing and gradation are generally determined according to the difficulty of items or their frequency. In communicative or functionally oriented courses (e.g., in ESP programs sequencing may be according to the learners’ communicative needs.
Traditionally, term syllabus has been used to refer to the form in which linguistic content is specified in a course or method inevitably, the term has been more closely associated with methods that are product centered rather than those that are process-centered. Syllabuses and syllabus principles for Audio-lingual method, Structural-Situational, and notional functional methods, as well as in ESP approaches to language program design, can be readily identified. The syllabus underlying the Situational and Audio-lingual methods consist of a list of grammatical items and constructions, often together with an associated list of vocabulary items (Fries and Fries 1961; Alexander, Allen, Close, and O’Neill 1975). Notional-functional syllabuses specify the communicative content of a course in term of ructions, notions, topics, grammar, and vocabulary. Such syllabuses are usually determined in advance of teaching and for this reason have been referred to as “a priori syllabuses”.
A number of taxonomies of syllabus types in language teaching have been proposed, for example, Yalder (1987), long and Crookes (1992), and Brown (1995). Brown (1994:7) lists seven basic syllabus types Structural, Situational, Topical, Functional, Notional, Skill-based, and Task-based, and these can usually be linked to specific approaches or methods: Oral/ Situational (Situational); Audio-lingual (Structural), Communicative language Teaching (Notional/Functional), Task-based Teaching (Task-based). However, for some of the approaches and methods discussed in this book we have had to infer syllabus assumptions since no explicit syllabus specification rather than language organization or pedagogical issues determines syllabus design, as with Content-Based Instruction (Chapter 17).
The term syllabus, however, is less frequently used in process-based methods, in which considerations of language content are often secondary. Counseling-Learning, for themselves by choosing topics they want to talk about. These are then translated into the target language and used as the basis for interaction and language practice. To find out what linguistic content had in fact been generated and practiced during a course organized according to Counseling-Learning principles, it would be necessary to record the lessons and later determine what items of language had been covered. This would be an a posteriori approach to syllabus specification; that is, the syllabus would be determined from examining lesson protocols. With such methods as the Silent Way and Total Physical Response, an examination of lesson protocols, teacher’s manuals, and texts derived from them reveals that the syllabuses underlying these methods are traditional lexico-grammatical syllabuses. In both there is a strong emphasis on grammar and grammatical accuracy.

Types of learning and teaching activities
The objectives of a method, whether defined primarily in term of product or process, are attained through the instructional process, through the organized and directed interaction of teachers, learners, and materials in the classroom. Differences among methods at the level of approach manifest themselves in the choice of different kinds of learning and teaching activities in the classroom. Teaching activities that focus on grammatical accuracy may be quite different from those that focus on communicative skills. Activities designed to focus on the development of specific psycho-linguistic process in language acquisition will differ from those directed toward mastery of particular features of grammar. The activities types that a method advocates-the third component in the level of design in method analysis-often serve to distinguish methods. Audiolingualism, for example, use dialogue and pattern practice extensively. The Silent Way employs problems-solving activities that involve the use of special charts and colored rods. Communication language teaching theoreticians have advocated the use of tasks that involve an “information gap” and “information transfer”; that is, learners work on the same task, but each learner has different information needed to complete the task.
The notion of the “task” as a central activity type in language teaching has been considerably elaborated and refined since its emergence in early versions of Communicative Language Teaching. As well, tasks have become a central focus in both second language acquisition research and second language pedagogy. The history and some of the current interpretation of the nature of language teaching tasks are described in detail in Chapter 18 in relation to Task-Based Language Teaching.

Different philosophies at the level of approach may be reflected both in the use of different kinds of activities and in different uses for particular activity types. For example, interactive games are often used in Audio-lingual courses for motivation and to provide a change of pace from pattern-practice drills. In communicative language teaching, the same games may be used to introduce or provide practice for particular types of interactive exchanges. Differences in activity types in methods thus include the primary categories of learning and teaching activity the method advocates, such as dialogue, responding to commands, group problem solving, information-exchange activities, improvisations, question and answer, or drill.
Because of the different assumptions they make about learning processes, syllabuses, and learning activities, methods also attribute different roles and functions to learners, teacher, and instructional materials within the instructional process. These constitute the next three components of design in method analysis.

Learner roles
The design of an instructional system will be considerably influenced by how learners are regarded. A method reflects explicit or implicit responses to questions concerning the learners’ contribution to the learning process. This is seen in the types of activities learners carry out, the degree of control learners have over the content of learning, the patterns of learner groupings adopted, the degree to which influence the learning of others, and the view of the learner as processor, performer, initiator, problem solver.
Much of the criticism of Audiolingualism came from the recognition of the very limited roles avaible to learners in audio-lingual methodology. Learners were seen as stimulus-response mechanism whose learning was a direct result of repetitive practice. Newer methodologies customary exhibit more concern for learner roles and for variation among learners. Johnson and Paulston (1976) spell out learner roles in an individualized approach to language learning in the following terms:
a.    Learner plans their own learning program and thus ultimately assume responsibility for what they do in the class room.
b.    Learner monitor and evaluate their own progress
c.    Learners are members of a group and learn by interacting with others.
d.    Learners tutor other learners
e.    Learners learn from the teacher, from other students, and from other students, from other teaching sources.
Counseling –Learning view learners as having roles that change develop mentally, and Curran (1976) uses an ontogenetic metaphor to suggest this development. He divides the developmental process into five stages, extending from total dependency on the teacher in stage 1 to total independence in stage 5. These learner stage Curran sees as parallel to the growth of a child from embryo to independent adulthood, passing through childhood and adolescence.
Teacher roles
Learner roles in an instructional system are closely linked to the teacher’s status and function. Teacher roles are similarly related ultimately both to assumptions about language and language learning at the level of approach. Some methods are totally dependent on the teacher as a source of knowledge and direction; others see the teacher’s role as catalyst, consultant, guide, and model for learning teacher initiative and by building instructional system by limiting teacher initiative and by building instructional content and direction into texts or lesson plans. Teacher and learner role define the type of interaction characteristic of classrooms in which a particular method is being used.
Teacher roles in methods are related to the following issues:
a.    The types of functions teachers are expected to fulfill, whether that of practice director, counselor, or model, for examples.
b.    The degree of control the teacher has over how learning takes place.
c.    The degree to which the teacher is responsible for determining the content of what is taught.
d.     And the instructional patterns that develop between teachers and learners.
Methods typically depend critically on teacher roles and their realizations. In the classical Audio-lingual Method, the teacher is regarded as the primary source of language and of language learning. But fewer teachers directed learning may still demand very specific and sometimes even more demanding roles for the teacher. The role of the teacher in Silent Way, for example, depends on through training and methodological initiation. Only teacher who are thoroughly sure of their role and the concomitant learner’s role of the role will risk departure from the security of traditional textbook-oriented teaching.
For some methods, the role of the teacher has been specified in detail. Individualized approaches to learning define roles for the teacher that creates specific patterns of interaction between teachers and learners in the classroom. These are designed to shift the responsibility for learning gradually from the teacher to the learner. Counseling-learning sees the teacher’s role as that of psychological counselor, the effectiveness of the teacher’s role being a measure of counseling skills and attributes warmth, sensitivity, and acceptance.
As these examples suggest, the potential role relationships of learner and teacher are many and varied. They may be asymmetrical relationships, such as those of conductor to orchestra member, therapist to patient, and coach to player. Some contemporary methodologies have sought to establish more symmetrical kinds of learner-teacher relationships, such as friend to friend, colleague to colleague, and teammate to teammate. The role of the teacher will ultimately reflect both the objectives of the method and the learning theory on which the method is predicated, since the success of a method may depend on the degree to which the teacher can provide the content or create the conditions for successful language learning.

The role of instructional materials
The last component within the level of design concerns the role of instructional materials within the instructional system. What is specified with respect to objectives, content (i.e., the syllabus), learning activities, and learner and teacher roles suggests the function for materials within the system. The syllabus defines linguistics content in terms of language elements-structures, topics, notions, function-or, in some cases, of learning tasks (see Johnson 1982; Prabhu 1983). It also defines the goals for language learning in terms of speaking, listening, reading, or writing skills. The instructional materials in their turn further specify subject matter content, even where no syllabus exists, and define or suggest the intensity of coverage for syllabus items, allocating the amount of time, attention, and detail particular syllabus items or tasks require. Instructional materials also define or imply the day-to-day learning objectives that collectively constitute the goals of the syllabus. Materials designed on the assumption that learning is initiated and monitored by the teacher must meet quite different requirement from those designed for student self-instruction or for peer tutoring. Some method requires the instructional use of existing materials, found materials, and realia. Some assume teacher-proof materials that even poorly trained teachers with imperfect control of the target language can teach with. Some materials require specially trained teachers with near-native competence in the target language. Some are designed to replace the teacher, so that learning can take place independently. Some materials dictate various interactional patterns in the classroom; others inhibit classroom interaction; still others are noncommittal about interaction between teacher and learner and learner and learner.

The role of instructional materials within a method or instructional system will reflect decisions concerning the primarily goal of materials (e.g., to present content, to practice content, to facilitate communication between learners, or to enable learners to practice content without the teacher’s help), the form of materials (e.g., text book, audio-visuals, computer software), the relation of materials to other sources of input (i.e., whether they serve as the major source of input or only as a minor component of it), and the abilities of teachers (e.g., their competence in the language or degree of training and experience).

A particular design for an instructional system may imply a particular set of roles for materials in support of the syllabus and the teachers and learners. For example, the role of instructional materials within a functional/communicative methodology might be specified in the following terms:
1.    Materials will focus on the communicative abilities of interpretation, expression, and negotiation.
2.    Material will focus on understandable, relevant, and interesting exchanges of information, rather than on the presentation of grammatical form.
3.    Materials will involve different kinds of text and different media, which the learners can use to develop their competence through a variety of different activities and tasks.
By comparison, the role of instructional materials within an individualized instructional system might include the following specifications:
1.    Materials will allow learners to progress at their own rates of learning.
2.    Materials will allow for different styles of learning.
3.    Materials will provide opportunities for independent study and use.
4.    Materials will provide opportunities for self-evaluation and progress in learning.
The content of a method such as Counseling-Learning is assumed to be a product of the interests of the learners, since learners generate their own subject matter. In that sense it would appear that no linguistics content or materials are specified within the method. On the other hand, Counseling-Learning acknowledges the need for learner mastery of certain linguistics mechanics, such as vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation. Counseling-Learning sees these issues as failing outside the teacher’s central role as counselor. Thus, Counseling-Learning has proposed the learning of some of the more mechanical aspects of language so as to free the teacher to function increasingly as a learning counselor.

The last level of conceptualization and organization within a method is what will refer to as procedure. This encompasses the actual moment to-moment techniques, practices, and behaviors that operate in teaching a language according to a particular method. It is the level at which we describe how a method realizes its approach and design in classroom behavior. At the level of design we saw that a method will advocate the use of certain types of teaching activities as consequence of its theoretical assumptions about language and learning. At the level of procedure, we are concerned with how these tasks and activities are integrated into lessons and used as the basis for teaching and learning. There are three dimensions to a method at the level of procedure:
a.    The use of teaching activities ( drill, dialogues, information-gap activities, etc) to present new language and to clarify and demonstrate formal, communicative, or other aspect of the target language.
b.    The ways in which particular teaching activities are used for practicing language
c.    And the procedures and techniques used in giving feedback to learners concerning the form or content of their utterances or sentences.
Essentially, then, procedure focuses on the way a method handles the presentation, practice, and feedback phases of teaching. Here, for example, is a description of te procedural aspect of a beginning Silent way course based on Stevick (1980:44-45):
1.    The teacher points at meaningless symbols on a wall chart. The symbol represents the syllables of the spoken language. The students read the sounds, first in chorus and then individually.
2.    After the students can pronounce the sounds, the teacher moves to a second set of chart containing words frequently used in the language, including numbers. The teacher leads students to pronounce long numbers.
3.    The teacher uses colored rods together with charts and gestures to lead the students into producing the words and basic grammatical structures needed.

Of error treatment in the Silent Way Stevik notes; when the students respond correctly the teacher’s initiative, she usually does not react with any overt confirmation that what they did was right. If a student’s response is wrong, on the other hand, she indicates that the student needs to do further work on the word or phrase; if she thinks it necessary, she actually shows the student exactly where the additional work is to be done (1980:45)
Finocchiaro and Brumfit (1983) illustrate how the procedural phases of instruction are handled in what they call a notional-functional approach.
1.    Presentation of a brief dialogue or several mini-dialogues.
2.    Oral practice of each utterance in the dialogue.
3.    Question and answers based on the topic and situation in the dialogue.
4.    Question and answers related to the student’s personal experience but centered on the theme of the dialogue.
5.    Study of the basic communicative expressions used in the dialogue or one of the structures that exemplify the function.
6.    Learner discovery of generalization or rules underlying the functional expression of structure.
7.    Oral recognition, interpretative procedures.
8.    Oral production activities, proceeding from guided to freer communication.
We expect methods to be most obviously idiosyncratic at level of procedure; thought classroom observations often reveal that teachers do not necessary follow the procedures a method prescribes. The elements and sub- elements that constitute a method and that we have described under the rubrics of approach, design, and procedure.

In the introduction of this book we have indicated that the subject matter which we shall discuss in this book, vise, the learning and teaching of fact it is only one of many sub-areas of “applied linguistics”. Some elucidation of why this is so seems appropriate at this point; this primarily terminological elucidation will also serve to achieve this by first of all dealing with a few aspects directly concerned with the two component parts of the term” applied linguistics”, then by dealing with the historical background of the term, and lastly, by comparing our interpretation of this area of research with that of other.

Analysis of the term
Many researchers have written at length on what the term applied linguistics” means. This fact alone could be take to demonstrate that a purely semantic definition of the field will fail; if the field indeed were what the combination of the words” applied” and “ linguistics” means, then the terminological problem would have been solved a long time ago. For although one can in principle distinguish at least some different types of applied science (Back, 1970: 20 ff.), and although the researchers are not agreed on what linguistics actually is, this issue would not have been the subject of so many books and articles in the past 25 years, if a purely semantic solution would have been sufficient to settle it. The problem, however, has always been that the semantic path is not the only path to the definition of the term “applied linguistics” (Corder 1972:10).

In all applied science the aim is to acvieve or help to achieve goals which are outside the actual realm of the sciences themselves. Applied linguistics is, therefore, not the same as linguistics; neither is it a subsection of linguistics. Application of sciences can be diviv li lieded into a number of types, Back ( 1970:20 ff.) distinguishes three types of applied science, for which he gives examples from the field of linguistics:
1.      The method and result from one branch of science are used to develop insight into another branch of science; among the examples from linguistics which Back ( 1970:27) cites are philology and stylistics. FLT can be cited as an example.
2.      The methods and results from a branch of science are used to solve practical social problems; FLT can be cited as an example.
3.      The application itself; under this interpretation the teacher who teaches his classes is actually involved in applied linguistics.

The term” applied linguistics” is hardly ever used for type 3 applications. It is usually reserved for type 2 applications, as can be seen from the following definition by Corder (1974:5):
Applied linguistics is the utilization of the knowledge about the nature of language achieved by linguistics research for the improvement of the efficiency of some practical task in which language is a central component.

The type 1 application Baifck cites, philology and stylistics, are no longer referred to as applied linguistics. With sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics the case is different. In so far as they are not seen as genuine (sub) branches of linguistics, they come under applications of linguistics as cited under (1). For this reason, they have in the past often been grouped under the healing of “applied linguistics”, a practice which is sometimes still encountered (see 2.3.1). There is, however, a tendency to narrow down the term “applied linguistics”, so as to exclude psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics, because in these disciplines the role of linguistics is very different from its role in the “practical task “we are discussing here, namely FLT.
Some other practical tasks which Back (1970:28 ff) mentions belong to the same category as FLT: translation, speech-pathology, language police and terminology. Kuhlwein (1979) gives a similar list of areas within applied linguistics and lists the relevant literature for each individual area. All this gives us rather a long list of different “practical tasks” which could be called “applied linguistics”. In this respect, too, some researchers attempt to reach full agreement on what the scope of applied linguistics is. But like Kaplan (1980 VII), we doubt whether this is really necessary. It is, however, crucial to establish what in all these cases is meant by “applied”. Is it the method of scientific research that we have to consider as characteristics of applied linguistics? Does applied linguistics, in slant towards the improvement of ‘ the efficiency of a practical task’,base itself solely on research of an applied nature, and is research of a fundamental nature irrelevant or impossible? Some people tend towards the latter position, or even take a firm stand on it. To Galisson and Coste (1976:40), applied linguistics is a ‘trait d’union indispensable entre la theorie  la prhtique’ – they are dealing with applied linguistics in the sense in which we use in book-and they characterize this intermediary position as follow:
Elle ne s’adonne pas a la recherché fondamentale (la linguisque lui fournit ses bases theoriques) et elle ne debouche pas sur la consummation (la methodologie approprie a la class les materiaux qu ‘ ell selectionne).

Another literal interpretation of the word “applied”-or at least seemingly so-as a term for research in this area can be found in the following frequently quoted and discussed passage from (1973:10):
The application of linguistics knowledge to some object-or applied linguistics, as its name implies-is and activity. It is not a theoretical study. The applied linguist is a consumer, or user, not a producer of theories.

Many people ( see e.g. James 1980:5) have interpreted Corder as saying that applied linguistics is ‘not a science in its own right, but merely a technology based on “pure” linguistics”. Before James, Roulet  (1973:33), Hullen (1974:14), Spiller (1977:155) and Widdowson (1979a:1) have argued emphatically that applied linguistics is indeed a science in its own right. In various places in the Edinburgh Course in Applied Linguistics applied linguistics is characterized, following Corder, as a “ problem oriented discipline”, as opposed to ‘theory-based ‘linguistics (see also Ingram n.d.). in a latter discussion, Corder himself makes it clear that he uses the term applied linguistics because the applied linguist’s “objective is not to increase our understanding of the nature of human language “ ( Corder 1978:81). In our opinion, however, which we assume is shared by Corder, this does not mean that it is not necessary to develop theories within the field of applied linguistics.
The fact that applied linguistics does not primarily aim to contribute to the development of linguistics does not mean that no such contributions of applied linguistics exist. Studying the way in which the L2 learning process can be influenced through teaching, for example, will regularly cast a different light on the theories about language structure, language learning and language uses as developed by theoretical linguists ( see also Fergson 1971b:105, Wardhaugh and Brown 1976:5). Furthermore it is the case that although the primary aim of applied linguists may still do research which properly speaking comes under the heading of theoretical linguistics.

If one uses the term ‘applied linguistics’ in connection with the study of learning and teaching foreign language, one finds that not only the first part of the term t needs to be defined, but also the second, since a literal interpretation of this second term can only lead to the conclusion that theoretical linguistics is the only discipline at the basis of applied linguistics.
Applied linguistics has, in the past, indeed sometimes based itself solely on findings from theoretical linguistics. The position then was, essentially, that in order to be able to teach a language all one needed to know was how the language in question is structured. An FLT method such as grammar translation method is a clear example of such a position. Well known structuralist linguists like Charles C. Fries also had a deep-rooted confidence in the support that could be provided by theoretical linguistics (see Engles 1968:5) later on we shall see that term’ applied linguistics’ first became very popular in Fries’cirlce, not unexpectedly so.
In later years, we find repeated warnings against this dependence of FLT on development within theoretical linguistics (see Johnson 1969:236, Benner 1979:7). Generally speaking, one can say that the assumption of a unilateral dependence has been abandoned, although not as long ago as Kuhlwein ( 1979:157) would have us believe. of course, there have been some researchers in the past who realized that theoretical linguistics alone would not suffice as a basis for FLT. One of the main exponents of the Reform Movement ( see chapter 8), Henry as 1899 that knowledge of “ the psychological laws on which memory and the association of idia depend “ is also an important source of inspiration for FLT, together with theoretical linguistics (Sweet 1964 :37). A large number of authors of the last few decades express their conviction that there is more than one discipline at the basis of FLT. In addition to linguistics and its sub-disciplines, one often finds psychology, sociology, pedagogy and education mention ( see Van Teslaar 1963:51, Halliday et al, 1964:169, Spolsky 1970 :144, Szulc 1976:109, James:6).
Not many experts these days are of the opinion that theoretical linguistics provides all the information necessary for FLT. For a number of them this is a reason to reject the term “ applied linguistics” altogether. They either look for a different term to cover what we have called “applied linguistics” (see2.3.2.), or they try to narrow down the field to such an extent that theoretical linguistics remains as the only relevant contributor; the latter position will be discussed below. But before we embark on this discussion we would like to point out that there are also people who think that the final solution to the terminological problem lies in interpreting the term linguistics if linguistics is understood to cover not only research into the structure of language, but also into the psychology and sociology thereof. It remains far from clear to us, however, how these experts (compare Brumfit 1980 and Richards 1975) would incorporate the important contribution of a discipline such as the science of education under the heading of linguistics of linguistics. 
But let us return to those who wish to narrow down the field of applied linguistics to the point where the name of the field can be derived literally from the second part: “linguistics”. Especially in Great Britain, and in particular within what could be called the “Edinburgh School of Applied Linguistics”, one will find many people, among them the leading figure of this “school”  Pit Corder, who have tried for years to solve the terminological problem in this way, which, it seems to us, is rather forced. As can be seen in various places in the Edinburgh Course in Applied Linguistics and from the numerous publications by Corder on this subject, it is not the case that they expect theoretical linguistics to provide the solution to all FLT problems; educational policy, educational sociology, educational economics and general pedagogy are explicitly and emphatically mentioned. But the principles of discipline other than linguistics-in the broadest sense- are not considered to belong to the domain of the applied linguist. This leads Corder (1973:13) to distinguish three levels of decision-making in the total language teaching operation; levels which can be characterized by questions of the following type:
a.       Whether, what language and whom to teach?
b.       What, when and how much to teach?
c.       How to teach?
Corder singles out level (b) as the applied linguist’s domain, because it is at this level that the contribution of linguistics will be most useful; levels (a) and (c) are allotted to politicians and teachers, respectively, It is our opinion, however, that the integration of principles from educational and didactic sciences can not be left to politicians and teachers, who are mainly concerned with practical problems, but that these principles, too, have to be “translated” like those of linguistics, by a “ theoretician” for them to be applicable to FLT.
What is essential is that one and the same FLT theoretician attempts to integrate the principles of the various source disciplines into a “theory” of FLT. For want of a better name better name (see 2.3.2) this theoreticians is still often referred to as an applied linguist. In his work, which will always be of an interdisciplinary nature, language will always be central, and linguistics has more to contribute to the solution of certain problems connected with selection of teaching material than to the solution of certain problems in teaching methodology. Our objection to the way Corder sets out the area of applied linguistics, which is also supported by Politzer (1972:3 ff), is that the contribution of other disciplines to FTL does not receive enough attention, or is not sufficiently integrated (see also Chapter 7). For our position we will have to be excused a certain lack of terminological precision: we will not make the definition of the field subordinate to a semantically pure interpretation of the term “applied linguistics”.

History of the term
In this section, we wish to give a brief historical survey of the use of the term, and discuss some of the proposal which have been made over the years to replace the term by one better suited to the field.

The term “applied linguistics”
Back (1970:34 ff) gives some examples from the nineteenth and early twentieth century which indicate that applications of linguistics were thought of before the term “applied linguistics” came to be used. For it is a fairly recent term, and at first used specifically in connection with FLT, at least in Western European and the US. Apparently, it first came to be widely used in the US, some 20 or 30 years ago. Back (1970:50) quotes it from the title of Kandler (1952). In this interpretation, one also finds the term in e.g. Haas (1953), Cardenas (1961), Lado (1957), and Politzer (1960). Marckey (1966:197) claim that it originated in around 1940.
            Engels (1968:5) tells us that applied linguistics was recognized as an independent subject in the University of Michigan as early as 1946. It is, therefore, likely that the term originated there and then; it is certainly the case that its use was propagated from there. The English Language Institution of this university, under the guidance of Charles C. Fries and Robert Lado, occupied itself with teaching English to foreigners. From this institute originates the well known journal Language Learning, subtitled Journal of Applied Linguistics from its first (1948) issue. It was the first journal in the world to have the term “applied linguistics” in its title, which the editors themselves point out in volume 17 (1967). Incidentally, they also point out a very use of the term in the subtitle of Lockhart (1931).
            The fact that the term in itself seem to confer some sort of status has certainly contributed to its popularity. According to Mackey (1966:197) its use was propagated by people who clearly wanted to be known as scientists and not as humanists: applying linguistics it was thought that the scientific status of the natural sciences, which had brought such great technological process, would be conferred upon linguistics as well. Back (1970:42) and Van Ek (1971:332) also point out that a lot of status was attached to the term itself. Beside the argument mentioned by Mackey, the fact that within FLT it was especially the linguists who had contributed so greatly to the language courses that had been designed for the US army during World II by the American Council of Learned Societies also played a role. Linguistics came very much into vogue, people started using the term “linguistics method”, and it was almost inevitable that “applied linguistics” became popular as a synonym for FLT (see Moulton 1965:74).
            People have not only tried to restrict the use of the term specifically to FLT. In a number of countries, especially Russian, applied linguistics exclusively meant automatic translation: a use which now seems to have vanished completely. The fact that the great expectations people had of this particular branch of applied linguistics have largely failed to materialize will certainly have contributed to its disappearance.
            From a historical point of view it is interesting that the initiators of the Association International de Linguistics Appliquee (AILA) considered tobe two areas, FLT and automatic translation, to be the main interest of applied linguistics when AILA was founded in Nancy in 1964. Until AILA started publishing its own AILA considered these two areas, FLT and automatic translation, to be used the two journals T.(ranslation) A.(utomatique) informations and IRAL ( See Ste

Applied linguistics
By Gideon Nafiri Victor
Applied linguisticsis an umbrella term that covers a wide set of numerous areas of study connected by the focus on the language that is actually used. The emphasis in applied linguistics is on language users and the ways in which they use languages, contrary to theoretical linguistics which studies the language in the abstract not referring it to any particular context, or language, like Chomskyan generative grammar for example.
Interestingly even among applied linguists there is a difference of opinion as to the scope, the domains and limits of applied linguistics. There are many issues investigated by applied linguists such as discourse analysis, sign language, stylistics and rhetoric as well as language learning by children and adults, both as mother tongue and second or foreign language. Correlation of language and gender, as well as the transfer of information in media and interpersonal communication are analyzed by applied linguists. Also forensic linguistics, interpretation and translation, together with foreign language teaching methodology and language change are developed by applied linguistics.
Shortly after the introduction of the term applied linguistics it was associated mainly with first, second and foreign language teaching, however nowadays it is seen as more interdisciplinary branch of science. Although in certain parts of the world language teaching remains the major concern of applied linguists, issues such as speech pathologies and determining the levels of literacy of societies, or language processing along with differences in communication between various cultural groups – all gain interest elsewhere.
In European union the focus of applies linguistics is put on the issues connected with the language policy of this multilingual community. The primary aim is to keep the balance in fulfilling the need for lingua franca and maintaining smaller languages in order for them not to get devalued. This is a pressing matter as with the migration of people within the European union and from outside its boarders the mixture of languages is getting more and more complex. Therefore, the focus is also put on analyzing language attitudes, adopting common language policy, creating teaching textbooks and other materials.
As it can be seen there are many trends in applied linguistics, some interconnected, others not having too much in common. There are, however, some very general tendencies among applied linguists to put more effort on certain investigations such as languages of wider communication, corpusanalysis, or critical applied linguistics. When it comes to languages of wider communication it is clear that with the increasing numbers of international travels and technological advances the need for an international language raises. As English is the contemporary lingua franca applied linguists attempt to include language policy and planning in their interest, but is also concerned with analyzing language and identity, and special educational needs. Corpus analysis takes both quantitative and qualitative approach to the study of language and applied linguists focus of the identification of patterns of language use depending on social context, audiences, genres and settings. Critical applied linguistics is interested in the social problems connected with language such as unemployment, illiteracy and pedagogy.
Brown K. (Editor) 2005. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics – 2nd Edition. Oxford: Elsevier.

JURUSAN : Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris
MATA KULIAH : Teaching English of Foreign Language (TEFL 1 )
TUJUAN PEMBELAJARAN : Mahasiswa memiliki pengetahuan tentang beberapa metode pengajaran
bahasa yang dikenal di Eropa dan Amerika maupun yang dipahami di

Pertemuan I
Pokok Bahasan :The understanding of language
Deskripsi Materi :Mahasiswa dapat memahami pengertian bahasa
Waktu :1 x 150 mnt
Metode : Ceramah, Tanya jawab, demonstrasi, diskusi
Sumber : Richards, J.C, and Theodores Rodgers, Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Cambridge, London, 1986.

Pertemuan II
Pokok Bahasan :Conceptual understanding of language teaching terms
Deskripsi Materi :Mahasiswa dapat memahami pengertian konsep pengajaran bahasa
Waktu : 1 x 150 mnt
Metode :s.d.a
Sumber :Freem, Diane Larsen, Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching, Oxford, London, 1986.

Pertemuan III
Pokok Bahasan :Conceptual understanding of language teaching terms
Deskripsi Materi :Mahasiswa dapat memahami pengertian konsep pengajaran bahasa
Waktu :1 x 150 mnt
Metode :s.d.a
Sumber :Widdows, H.G, Teaching Language as Communication, Oxford, London, 1978.

Pertemuan IV
Pokok Bahasan : A brief history of foreign language teaching
Deskripsi Materi : Mahasiswa dapat memahami sejarah singkat pengajaran bahasa
Waktu :1 x 150 mnt
Metoda :s.d.a
Sumber :Bell, Roger T, Applied Linguistics, 1981.

Pertemuan V
Pokok Bahasan :A brief history of foreign language teaching
Deskripsi Materi:Mahasiswa dapat memahami sejarah singkat pengajaran bahasa
Waktu :1 x 150 mnt
Metoda :s.d.a
Sumber :Bambang, Setiyadi, dkk. Tefl 1, Penerbit Univ.Terbuka,Jakarta, 2007

Pertemuan VI
Pokok Bahasan :Approach, methods, technique
Deskripsi Materi :Mahasiswa dapat memahami pendekatan, metode dan teknik mengajar bahasa Inggris
Waktu :1 x 150 mnt
Metoda :s.d.a
Sumber :Prof.Dr. Muljanto Sumardi, M.A. dan Nida Husna M.Pd, Metode Pengajaran Bahasa Asing, UIN Jakarta, Jakarta.

Pertemuan VII
Pokok Bahasan :The nature of approaches and methods in language teaching
Deskripsi Materi :Mahasiswa dapat memahami pendekatan dan metode alami dalam pengajaran bahasa
Waktu :1 x 150 mnt
Metoda : s.d.a

Pertemuan VIII

Pertemuan IX
Pokok Bahasan :Grammar Translation Method
Deskripsi Materi :Mahasiswa dapat memahami Grammar Translation Method
Waktu :1 x 150 mnt
Metode :Ceramah, Tanya jawab, demonstrasi, diskusi

Pertemuan X
Pokok Bahasan :Direct Method
Deskripsi Materi :Mahasiswa dapat memahami Direct Method
Waktu :1 x 150 mnt
Metoda : :s.d.a

Pertemuan XI
Pokok Bahasan :Direct Method
Deskripsi Materi :Mahasiswa dapat memahami Direct Method
Waktu :1 x 150 mnt
Metoda :s.d.a

Pertemuan XII
Pokok Bahasan :Oral approach and situation language teaching
Deskripsi Materi :Mahasiswa dapat memahami pengajaran bahasa melalui pendekatan oral dan situasi
Waktu : 1 x 150 mnt
Metoda :s.d.a

Pertemuan XIII
Pokok Bahasan :Oral approach and situation language teaching
Deskripsi Materi :Mahasiswa dapat memahami pengajaran bahasa melalui pendekatan oral dan situasi
Waktu :1 x 150 mnt
Metoda : s.d.a

Pertemuan XIV
Pokok Bahasan :Audio Lingual Method
Deskripsi Materi :Mahasiswa dapat memahami Audio Lingual Method
Waktu :1 x 150 mnt
Metoda :s.d.a

Pertemuan XV
Pokok Bahasan : Audio Lingual Method
Deskripsi Materi :Mahasiswa dapat memahami Audio Lingual Method
Waktu :1 x 150 mnt
Metoda :s.d.a

Pertemuan XVI

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